Have you ever wanted to extend your bottom time or go just a little bit deeper on a dive? If so, nitrox could allow you to dive longer, safer, and with less fatigue.
As a diving novice, you’ve likely been taught that air is what you breathe underwater. But air is only 21% oxygen, with the rest being mostly nitrogen. By increasing the oxygen percentage in your tank, nitrox gives you more bottom time, decreases decompression sickness risk, and reduces post-dive tiredness.
However, with the benefits come potential dangers. Use nitrox incorrectly, and you risk serious health consequences from oxygen toxicity. This is an extensive guide forged by me to get you through the basics of nitrox in case you wish to replace your boring regular compressed gas mixture with it.
Table of Contents
- 1 Nitrox and Its Plethora of Benefits
- 2 What Are the Prerequisites To Get Nitrox Certified?
- 3 Addressing the Oxygen Toxicity Risk Factor
- 4 Nitrox Diving Equipment: What Gear Do You Need?
- 5 How Much Does Nitrox Cost? Fill Prices, Courses, and Additional Gear
- 6 How Do You Get Nitrox Fills and Handle Mixes Properly?
- 7 5 Must-Know Nitrox Diving Tips for Beginners
- 8 Just Like Every Aspect of Scuba Diving, Nitrox Has Its Ups and Downs
Nitrox and Its Plethora of Benefits
Nitrox contains a higher percentage of oxygen than standard compressed air. While regular air is only 21% oxygen, nitrox mixes contain anywhere from 22% to 40% oxygen. The remaining gas is primarily nitrogen.
The key benefit of nitrox comes from this oxygen increase. Underwater, the nitrogen component of air causes narcotic effects and requires mandatory decompression stops. More oxygen means less nitrogen, so using nitrox:
Reduces risk of decompression sickness
Less nitrogen in your tank means less nitrogen absorbed into your body tissues during a dive. This reduces decompression stress and fatigue. Specifically, nitrox can reduce decompression obligation by up to 50% compared to air at the same depth.
Gives more no-decompression time
You can stay down longer and tone down your frequency of decompression stops since you absorb less nitrogen per minute. At 30 meters, nitrox 32 lets you stay 55 minutes vs only 35 minutes on air.
There’s another added benefit to this that no one seems to talk about.
With fewer decompression ascents and descents, you’re subject to fewer depth and pressure changes, hence, you can cut down your need for constant ear equalization. Equalizing ears frequently is the bane of a lot of recreational divers and they often end up with blocked ears.. For them, nitrox might be the perfect solution.
Reduces nitrogen narcosis
Nitrogen narcosis refers to the intoxicating effects that build up when divers breathe compressed air at depths beyond 30 meters, caused by nitrogen being absorbed into the body under high pressure and affecting the brain similarly to alcohol intoxication, impairing judgment and coordination.
Higher oxygen levels help clear nitrogen from your system, reducing intoxication risk on deep dives. Nitrox provides a safer cushion before the onset of impairment.
No More After-Dive Exhaustion
You can bid farewell to post-dive exhaustion. Inhaling all that extra oxygen content in your gas mixture supplies more energy to your muscles and brain and keeps them more fired up than usual.
However, despite its benefits, too much oxygen becomes toxic at depth.
So, be advised. Nitrox isn’t your premium ticket for reckless diving.
What Are the Prerequisites To Get Nitrox Certified?
Nitrox isn’t for all divers. Before considering it, you should:
Have an Open Water certification: Preferably AOW certification from PADI or AOC level 3 from SSI and 50+ logged dives with regular air as stepping stones.
Have excellent buoyancy control and trim: Nitrox diving demands less exertion from you so that you do not end up drawing excessive oxygen-rich air underwater and suffer from OT. So you need to be proficient in all the skills that are aimed at reducing underwater exertion and that includes your ability to be neutrally buoyant and to properly trim.
Understand dive planning: You need to be well-versed in reading dive computers as well as dive tables (for redundancy). Knowledge of universal gas laws, partial pressures of Oxygen and Nitrogen, formulas for calculating SAC rate, air duration, etc. should be at the edge of your mouth.
Addressing the Oxygen Toxicity Risk Factor
While nitrox allows you to absorb less nitrogen, the increased oxygen percentage comes with its own risks. As you descend deeper on nitrox, the partial pressure of oxygen rises. At high partial pressures, oxygen becomes toxic. Symptoms of oxygen toxicity include:
- Visual disturbances and tunnel vision
- Nausea, dizziness, and disorientation
- Muscle twitching or convulsions
Oxygen toxicity can onset rapidly and result in drowning if not treated immediately by ascending to a shallower depth. A proper nitrox training course teaches you how to calculate maximum operating depths for a given mix to avoid exceeding safe oxygen partial pressures.
You have to adhere to certain restrictions to steer clear of Oxygen Toxicity.
Stick to depth limits
No matter what, don’t give in to the urges to push and test your depth limit more and more.
Use conservative mixes
Begin with 32% or less oxygen content for wider safety margins until you become more comfortable with Nitrox.
Avoid Heavy Exertion
Strenuous breathing increases oxygen intake, raising toxicity risk. So keep your breathing natural, since it’s nitrox there’s no need for dangerous air conservation practices like holding your breath.
Just breathe as you do on land, without drawing in excessive oxygen (although the feeling can be tempting, the outcome isn’t), and gently breathe out.
Listen to Your Body
Disorientation, visual disturbances, or nausea is a sign that you’re likely treading on the borders of OT territory. End the dive then and there if these occur.
Nitrox Diving Equipment: What Gear Do You Need?
You don’t need much special gear to start nitrox diving. At a minimum:
- Nitrox-compatible scuba cylinder & valve: Your tank and valve fittings must be oxygen-clean and rated for high-pressure nitrox mixes. Standard aluminum cylinders are fine, just make sure to keep them separated from your standard air cylinders.
- Oxygen-compatible regulator: Using a nitrox-rated first stage and sealed second stage reduces fire/explosion risk.
- Nitrox analyzer: This device checks and records fill tank oxygen percentages so you breathe the expected mix.
- Oxygen-safe lubricants: Use fluorinated grease on tank threads and connections. Avoid standard hydrocarbon greases.
- Nitrox-capable dive computer: Although dive computers aren’t necessary for recreational dives with normal air, it’s a must when you’re breathing nitrox, no matter your depth. Set your computer to the oxygen percentage you’re using to properly track decompression status.
- Oxygen service equipment: Filling stations require specialized components like oxygen compressors, reservoirs, and purification systems.
With clean equipment and the right training, you can start nitrox diving without breaking the bank on new gear.
How Much Does Nitrox Cost? Fill Prices, Courses, and Additional Gear
Nitrox involves some extra costs over regular compressed air:
Certification: A nitrox course runs $150 to $250 for classroom and pool training. You are required to show your Nitrox Speciality Course completion certificate at the dive shop to fill your tanks with Nitrox mixture.
Fill prices: Expect to pay $5 to $10 more per tank over regular air fills. Shops need to cover equipment costs and oxygen waste from blending.
Extra cylinders: Having dedicated nitrox tanks avoids mix-ups with air tanks. Plan for an extra $200 to $500 per cylinder. Rental tanks are an alternative.
Regulator servicing: Expect to pay $20 to $60 extra when servicing a nitrox-compatible reg due to oxygen cleaning.
Analyzers: To put it in a positive light, personal analyzers offer you peace of mind in exchange for $200 to $1000. Test before filling to verify mix accuracy.
How Do You Get Nitrox Fills and Handle Mixes Properly?
Since you can’t just fill any tank with nitrox from a compressor, getting fills takes some planning:
- Check availability: Call ahead to ensure the dive shop or resort can blend nitrox when you’ll be diving. Availability varies by region and season.
- Analyze before filling: Use an oxygen analyzer to confirm tank oxygen levels start at 20-21% before filling. This prevents dangerous high-oxygen mixes.
- Fill slowly: Fast fills heat nitrox mixes, altering percentages. The filling rate should not exceed 500 psi/minute to ensure blend accuracy.
- Verify after filling: I’m not implying the tank-filling guys at dive shops are irresponsible. Just err on the side of caution. Re-test oxygen content after filling to ensure you received the expected nitrox mix. Log the percentage in your dive log.
- Isolate nitrox tanks: Keep nitrox cylinders in designated areas to prevent accidental airfills or mixes. Attach nitrox tank labels and oxygen percentage tags.
- Avoid oxygen cleaning: Never put nitrox tanks in ozone sterilizers or bleach baths, as concentrated oxygen can ignite with a devastating explosion.
5 Must-Know Nitrox Diving Tips for Beginners
- Start slow and shallow using low oxygen mixes under 30%
- Follow planned depth and time limits closely and conservatively
- Monitor computer warnings for maximum operating depth and oxygen exposure
- Off-gas for 60 to 90 minutes between nitrox and air dives
- Analyse fills before and after filling to verify percentages
If you’re a beginner scuba diver you might want to head over to our 11 beginner’s safety tips for scuba diving for some bonus tips for scuba diving in general.
Just Like Every Aspect of Scuba Diving, Nitrox Has Its Ups and Downs
While not wholly without risk, nitrox diving offers huge advantages for moderate depth diving when done carefully and correctly.
With mentoring from an experienced nitrox instructor, nitrox can open an exciting new chapter in your diving career. So don’t let the skeptics dissuade you. Gear up, gas up, and go revel in those dream dives you’ve previously had to rush through. Nitrox lets you breathe easy and unlock your underwater potential. Dive safe!